Daily and annual habitat use and habitat-to-habitat movement by Glaucous-winged Gulls at Protection Island, Washington

A 2017 paper in the journal Northwestern Naturalist looks at distribution patterns for Glaucous-winged Gulls across associated habitats in the Salish Sea.  

Glaucous-winged gulls. Photo courtesy of James Hayward.
Glaucous-winged gulls. Photo courtesy of James Hayward.

This report describes fluctuations in numbers of Glaucous-winged Gulls, primary indicators of marine quality, at a large breeding colony on Protection Island in the Salish Sea. It also explains how these birds move from one habitat to another over the course of a day and throughout the entire year. As the Salish Sea experiences further climate change, this study will provide a baseline against which to compare future trends.


Hayward, J. L., Henson, S. M., Bové, J., Bové, C., & Gregory, C. J. (2017). Daily and Annual Habitat Use and Habitat-To-Habitat Movement By Glaucous-Winged Gulls At Protection Island, Washington. Northwestern Naturalist98(3), 180-189.

Download the full paper (external link)