occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

Range Description

Melanitta americana breeds in western Alaska (USA), Newfoundland (Canada) and far-eastern Russia (e.g. Collinson et al. 2006). It winters at sea off north-east America, and in the Pacific on the coasts of North America, Russia, Japan, Korea and eastern China (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Global Protection: Few to several (1-12) occurrences appropriately protected and managed

Comments: Unclear how well protected they are but Canadian sites are in various sorts of parks.

Degree of Threat: Very high - high

Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable to decline of 30%

Comments: Not declining rapidly at most of its sites but thought to be declining at some as habitat deteriorates.

Global Long Term Trend: Decline of 70-90%

Comments: Extensive habitat has been lost to dune stabilization and exotic plants brought in for that purpose, to development, and recreational use.

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled

National NatureServe Conservation Status


Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

Comments: Adults occur from mid or late May though June, about 45-55 days per year. Eggs hatch in about two wweks . Larvae overwinterin one or more late instars and pupate in late April or May.

Global Abundance

2500 - 100,000 individuals

Comments: Crudely estimated at more than 1000 and almost certainly less than 10,000 for Canada. There is no reason to suspect US numbers are more than a few thousand either, but the total could be over 10,000. Thus total population size is low for an insect, especially if there are occasional major fluctuations(e.g. due to severe storms).

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20


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