Social science

Find content related to subjects within the social and economic sciences, such as population dynamics, quality of life, fisheries, culture and history of the Puget Sound and Salish Sea ecosystems.

RELATED ARTICLES

7/6/2018

Equity and social science integration at the 2018 Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

A new study looks at social science and equity integration within the proceedings of the 2018 Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference. The study was produced on behalf of the Puget Sound Partnership for the Encyclopedia of Puget Sound.

Screenshot of Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference website from 6/26/2018. https://wp.wwu.edu/salishseaconference/
6/26/2018

2018 Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The 2018 Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference took place April 4-6 at the Washington State Convention Center in Seattle, WA. It featured 588 presentations across 17 topic areas.

Amazon Spheres in Seattle. Photo: Jeff Rice
4/12/2018

Panel explores digital tech’s role in Salish Sea recovery

Bridging the gap between nature and technology might be a challenge for the Puget Sound region, but tech leaders could play an important role in protecting and restoring the ecosystem, according to a panel of experts at last week’s Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference in Seattle.

Screenshot of archived SSEC 2016 website at http://www.wwu.edu/salishseaconference/archived/2016/
8/10/2017

2016 Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The 2016 Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference took place April 13-15 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver BC. Over 1100 scientists and policy experts attended.

A screenshot of the online story
3/19/2017

Finding common ground in a world of environmental change

A 2017 course at the UW Jackson School of International Studies examined how to create alliances between the Tulalip Tribes and non-tribal millennials through improved intercultural communication. The students in the course produced a multi-media story describing their experiences. 

8/30/2016

A comparative study of human well-being indicators across three Puget Sound regions

A 2016 paper in the journal Society and Natural Resources looks at the creation of human well-being indicators across three regions in the Puget Sound watershed. The author suggests that overarching domains for these indictors might be applied more broadly in other environmental contexts. 

Marine Shoreline Design Guidelines (MSDG) report cover
4/7/2016

State guidelines offer new approaches to shoreline protection

Bulkhead removal is becoming an attractive option for many shoreline property owners as awareness spreads of their geological and ecological impacts, and as aging bulkheads come up for replacement. New state guidelines provide alternatives to hard armor.

Chart: Local shoreline changes in King County (2012-13). Source: King County, 2014
3/29/2016

Studies point to gap in permits for shoreline armoring

A significant number of Puget Sound property owners have been altering their shorelines without required permits. A new report suggests that state and local regulators should increase enforcement and make penalties more costly for violators.

Pat Collier walking along the restored beach in front of her Maury Island home. Photo: Christopher Dunagan/PSI
3/29/2016

Shoreline restoration turns to private property owners

By removing bulkheads where they can, property owners are improving shoreline habitat, one piece at a time. Officials from county and nonprofit groups have been offering assistance and finding new ways to connect with property owners.

A graph shows an increase in published papers related to anthropogenic noise
2/11/2016

Impacts of anthropogenic noise on marine life: Publication patterns, new discoveries, and future directions in research and management

A 2015 review in Ocean & Coastal Management looks at trends in research related to anthropogenic noise and its affect on a wide variety of marine organisms, from whales and fish to invertebrates. The review includes case studies from the Salish Sea. 

Salmon fishing at Fauntleroy. Photo: Washington State Dept of Transportation (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) www.flickr.com/photos/wsdot/3999467495
2/1/2016

Human dimensions

This content initiates a description of the social dimensions of the Puget Sound system with a short list of facts about population growth trends, how humans interact with and depend on the Puget Sound ecosystem for their wellbeing (in the broadest sense), and the large-scale policies and individual human activities that have the greatest potential impact on the Puget Sound ecosystem. 

Fig 1. The six projects assessed are located on both sides of the Canadian / United States border, which bisects the Salish Sea and its watershed.
1/4/2016

Evaluating threats in multinational marine ecosystems: A Coast Salish first nations and tribal perspective

A 2015 paper in the journal PLoS ONE identifies ongoing and proposed energy-related development projects that will increase marine vessel traffic in the Salish Sea. It evaluates the threats each project poses to natural resources important to Coast Salish first nations and tribes.

Visual representation of Human Wellbeing domains for marine policy.
12/2/2015

A holistic framework for identifying human wellbeing indicators for marine policy

A 2015 paper in the journal Marine Policy identifies six domains of human wellbeing related to the natural environment. The domains were developed based on case studies in Washington's Hood Canal and Olympic Coast regions.

Report cover for State of Knowledge: Climate Change in Puget Sound
11/16/2015

State of Knowledge: Climate Change in Puget Sound

A 2015 report from the University of Washington provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of the expected impacts of climate change on the Puget Sound region.

A social norm curve showing desirability of seven development scenarios (and associated changes in eelgrass) on a Likert scale from –2 (completely unacceptable) to +2, (optimal state). The line depicts the average desirability of each scenario; the colors show the frequency distribution of responses to each scenario. (From Fig. 4 in the article.)
10/17/2015

Developing conservation targets in social-ecological systems

A 2015 paper in the journal Ecology and Society looks at interdisciplinary approaches to developing conservation targets in Puget Sound. 

10/9/2015

Evaluating sense of place as a domain of human well-being for Puget Sound restoration

This report communicates findings of a social science study conducted between July 2013 and December 2014 on a focal domain of human well-being: sense of place.

2015 Puget Sound Fact Book report cover
10/2/2015

2015 Puget Sound Fact Book

The 2015 Puget Sound Fact Book brings together statistics and other information about the health and makeup of the Puget Sound ecosystem. Areas of focus include climate change, geography, water quality, habitats, human dimensions and regional species. The fact book was prepared for the Encyclopedia of Puget Sound with funding from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Puget Sound Partnership.

title page
9/28/2015

The Values of Place: Recreation and Cultural Ecosystem Services in Puget Sound

Coastal recreation, tourism, and ethical or existence values are among the most important ecosystem service (ES) benefits identified by Puget Sound stakeholders (Iceland et al, 2008). The ecosystem services (ES) concept has become the leading framework to understand and communicate the human dimensions of environmental change. This report focuses on economic, social and cultural values inextricably linked to ES benefits in the context of ongoing efforts to restore and protect the Sound.

9/23/2015

Tribes of the Puget Sound and Salish Sea regions

The following list includes Native American tribes and First Nations of the Salish Sea region.

2014 state of salmon in watersheds report cover
9/13/2015

2014 state of salmon in watersheds executive summary

This report documents how Washingtonians have responded to the challenges of protecting and restoring salmon and steelhead to healthy status. It also serves as a tool to summarize achievements, track salmon recovery progress through common indicators, and identify data gaps that need to be filled.

7/28/2015

Human dimensions of Puget Sound and Washington Coast ecosystem-based management

A workshop report prepared for the Puget Sound Institute and Washington Sea Grant

2012 State of Salmon in Watersheds Executive Summary report cover
7/21/2015

2012 state of salmon in watersheds executive summary

Salmon recovery demands both dedication among people with different interests, and sustained resources. This biennial report tells the story of the progress made to date and the challenges ahead.

Sound Science 2007 report cover image
7/21/2015

Sound Science 2007

Sound Science: Synthesizing Ecological and Socio-economic Information about the Puget Sound Ecosystem summarizes what we know about the greater Puget Sound ecosystem and what we think could happen in the future given present trajectories and trends.

1998 Puget Sound Update report cover page
7/17/2015

1998 Puget Sound Update

This is the sixth Puget Sound Update, a report for residents of the region about the overall health of Puget Sound. The conclusions in the Update are based mainly on scientific results of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP).

Ecology’s core river and stream monitoring stations in the Puget Sound basin. (page 18)
7/17/2015

2000 Puget Sound Update

This seventh Puget Sound Update is based primarily on the findings of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP). The PSAMP is a long-term effort to investigate environmental trends, improve decision-making and prevent overlaps and duplication in monitoring efforts. The results of the PSAMP are supplemented by the findings of many other efforts to evaluate the condition of Puget Sound’s waters, sediments, nearshore habitats and biological resources.

2002 Puget Sound Update report cover page
7/17/2015

2002 Puget Sound Update

This Puget Sound Update is the eighth report of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP) since the program was initiated in 1988 by the State of Washington.

Marine Shoreline Design Guidelines report cover
7/10/2015

Marine shoreline design guidelines

The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife has published a comprehensive set of guidelines for managing shoreline development such as bulkheads and seawalls.

Screenshot of archived SSEC 2014 website at http://www.wwu.edu/salishseaconference/archived/2014/
7/7/2015

2014 Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The 2014 Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference took place April 30-May 2 at the Washington State Convention Center in downtown Seattle. Over 1200 delegates attended the conference.

Fisherman cleaning and filleting a fish. Photo courtesy of NOAA.
7/7/2015

Subsistence fishing in a 21st century capitalist society: From commodity to gift

A 2015 paper in the journal Ecological Economics evaluated “personal use” and subsistence use of seafood among commercial operators in Washington and California, as well as the extent, range, and species diversity of noncommercial wild ocean seafood subsistence harvests. 

Yelloweye rockfish. Photo by Brian Gratwicke; Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license: http://www.flickr.com/photos/19731486@N07/5624404677
2/23/2015

Using stakeholder engagement to inform endangered species management and improve conservation

A 2015 paper in the journal Marine Policy examines surveys of Puget Sound anglers to provide baseline information related to rockfish conservation. 

Social scientists will monitor several of the Puget Sound Partership's "Vital Signs" including Healthy Human Population and Human Quality of Life.
2/3/2015

Recommended social indicators for the Puget Sound Partnership: A report summarizing lessons from three local case studies

A 2014 report from the University of Washington Puget Sound Institute identifies 23 potential indicators of human wellbeing in the Puget Sound region. These indicators will inform the adoption of Human Quality of Life "Vital Signs" by the Puget Sound Partnership.

Hood Canal Fireworks near Poulsbo, Washington. Photo: Eric Scouten. (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) https://www.flickr.com/photos/ericscouten/7506197890/
12/17/2014

Measuring human wellbeing indicators for Hood Canal

This 2014 Puget Sound Institue report shows baseline data, surveyed from Hood Canal residents, of four subjective indicators: accessing locally harvested products, experiencing positive emotions, working with community members to solve natural resource issues, and knowledge gained from different communication sources.

12/12/2014

A role for decision science in Puget Sound recovery

The field of decision analysis studies and develops rigorous and practical methods for improving how we make decisions. Over the past three years, the Puget Sound Partnership has invested in decision science expertise in its ongoing role of supporting effective Puget Sound recovery.  This paper describes some of these efforts and analyzes several decision support ideals.

Olympia oysters. Photo: VIUDeepBay (CC BY 2.0) https://www.flickr.com/photos/viucsr/5778358466
12/11/2014

Gifts from the sea: shellfish as an ecosystem service

The shellfish industry is a cornerstone of the Puget Sound economy, but the region's famed mollusks provide more than just money and jobs. They offer what are called ecosystem services—a wide variety of benefits that humans derive from an ecosystem.

Clam gardens, while all being characterized by a level terrace behind a rock wall in the lower intertidal, are diverse in their shapes and sizes. Photo: Amy S. Groesbeck.Clam gardens, while all being characterized by a level terrace behind a rock wall in the lower intertidal, are diverse in their shapes and sizes.
12/5/2014

Ancient clam gardens of the Northwest Coast of North America

Northwest Coast First Peoples made clam garden terraces to expand ideal clam habitat at tidal heights that provided optimal conditions for clam growth and survival, therefore enhancing food production and increasing food security.

Whatcom County’s Colonial Creek Campground site 85. Photo: Miguel Vieira  (CC BY 2.0) https://c1.staticflickr.com/7/6089/6063751537_49e65160f2_b.jpg
10/31/2014

Developing human wellbeing indicators related to the natural environment for Whatcom County

An October 2014 report examines the planning and monitoring of human wellbeing as a component of resource management in Whatcom County.

A “medicine wheel” graphic that will be used to showcase HWB indicators; copyright Biedenweg et al.
7/18/2014

Developing Human Wellbeing Indicators for the Puyallup Watershed

A July 2014 report examines potential human wellbeing indicators for the Puyallup Watershed.

Coastal Management journal cover
7/3/2014

The Sound Behavior Index: A Management Tool for Behavioral Aspects of Ecosystem Restoration

This paper appears in the July 2014 issue of the journal Coastal Management, which focuses on the role of social sciences in Puget Sound ecosystem recovery.

Coastal Management journal cover
7/3/2014

Developing Human Wellbeing Indicators in the Puget Sound: Focusing on the Watershed Scale

This paper appears in the July 2014 issue of the journal Coastal Management, which focuses on the role of social sciences in Puget Sound ecosystem recovery.

Coastal Management journal cover
7/3/2014

Indigenous Community Health and Climate Change: Integrating Biophysical and Social Science Indicators

This paper appears in the July 2014 issue of the journal Coastal Management, which focuses on the role of social sciences in Puget Sound ecosystem recovery.

Coastal Management journal cover
7/3/2014

Collaboration within the Puget Sound marine and nearshore science network

A study published in the journal Coastal Management generates a broad description of the collaborative network among marine and nearshore researchers in Puget Sound and identifies incentives and barriers to collaboration.

Coastal Management journal cover
7/3/2014

A Complex Tool for a Complex Problem: Political Ecology in the Service of Ecosystem Recovery

This paper appears in the July 2014 issue of the journal Coastal Management, which focuses on the role of social sciences in Puget Sound ecosystem recovery.

Coastal Management journal cover
7/1/2014

Special issue of Coastal Management focuses on social sciences in Puget Sound recovery

The July 2014 issue of the journal Coastal Management focuses on the role of social sciences in Puget Sound ecosystem recovery. Articles range from political ecology to the development of human wellbeing indicators and directly address current Puget Sound restoration efforts. Guest editors include Encyclopedia of Puget Sound topic editor Kelly Biedenweg and Puget Sound Science Panel co-chair Katharine Wellman. The journal is co-edited by Patrick Christie of our editorial board. Extended abstracts of the articles will be available on these pages in coming weeks.

5/15/2014

Marine Protected Areas in Puget Sound

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been present in Puget Sound since the early 1900s, although most were established after the 1960s (Whitesell et al. 2008, Van Cleve 2009). By 1998 there were at least 102 intertidal and subtidal protected areas in Puget Sound, created and managed by at least 12 different agencies or organizations at the local, county, State and Federal level (Murray and Ferguson 1998).

Sockey salmon. Photo courtesy of NOAA.
4/10/2014

Measuring Socio-Cultural Values Associated with Salmon in the Quinault Indian Nation

A 2014 report describes a study of socio-cultural values associated with blueback salmon in the Quinault Indian Nation. The blueback salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) is a unique strain of sockeye that returns primarily to the Quinault river system.

Tidal turbines like this one developed by OpenHydro, Ltd. will be installed in Puget Sound in mid 2015 as part of a demonstration project. Sustainable, large-scale development of tidal energy will require studying and learning from these early-stage projects. Image source: OpenHydro, Ltd./DCNS
3/25/2014

Tidal energy in Puget Sound

Scientists have identified the strong underwater currents of Puget Sound's Admiralty Inlet as a potential source of electricity for nearby utilities. The following article describes some of the basic principles and mechanisms of tidal energy.  

An infographic explains the basic principles of TDR. Image via King County.
1/30/2014

Report: Regional transfer of development rights in Puget Sound

A 2013 report from the Environmental Protection Agency discusses progress on implementing transfer of development rights (TDR) as a strategy for conservation and increased development capacity in Puget Sound.

Oyster shell cultch containing seed oysters is washed onto a public beach. Image courtesy of WDFW.
1/28/2014

Report: Evaluating the effects of bivalve filter feeding on nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound

A January 2014 USGS report discusses approaches for measuring the effect of bivalves on nutrient availability in different regions of Puget Sound.

Camano Island State Park coastline. Image courtesy of WDFW.
1/24/2014

Lessons learned: Island Local integrating pilot process for selecting near term actions for the 2014 Action Agenda.

This report discusses lessons learned from the task of choosing near term actions (NTAs), activities and initiatives for achieving recovery targets for Puget Sound Vital Sign indicators. It focuses on efforts by Local Integrating Organizations in Island County, including Whidbey and Camano Islands. 

Deepwater Horizon oil spill, 2010. Photo courtesy of NOAA.
1/20/2014

Making science useful in complex political and legal arenas: A case for frontloading science in anticipation of environmental changes to support natural resource laws and policies

Scientists argue that environmental disasters are inevitable and that it is just a matter of when and where they will occur. "Our coasts and oceans routinely experience significant environmental crises," writes Dr. Usha Varanasi, who makes a case for staying ahead of the curve and "frontloading the science." Her 2013 paper in the Washington Journal of Environmental Law & Policy proposes a new model for ecological disaster planning and response, in which baseline ecosystem data and syntheses are collected in advance of possible incidents. 
 
Social scientists will monitor several of the Puget Sound Partership's "Vital Signs" including Healthy Human Population and Human Quality of Life.
1/17/2014

Social science and monitoring needs for Puget Sound recovery

A report by the University of Washington Puget Sound Institute describes a 2013 workshop to integrate the social sciences into Puget Sound ecosystem monitoring. Social scientists will focus in part on several of the Puget Sound Partnership's designated ecosystem indicators, including categories such as Healthy Human Population and Human Quality of Life.

Photo by Ingrid Taylar
12/12/2013

Cultural dimensions of socio-ecological systems: key connections and guiding principles for conservation in coastal environments

A November 2013 paper in the journal Conservation Letters examines the importance of cultural values to ecosystem-based management of coastal environments. Extended abstract by Melissa Poe of NOAA Fisheries and Washington Sea Grant, with Phil Levin and Karma Norman.

Book cover for "Elwha: A River Reborn" by Lynda Mapes
11/20/2013

Puget Sound Voices: Exhibit traces Elwha restoration

The Encyclopedia of Puget Sound spoke with Seattle Times reporter Lynda Mapes about the exhibit Elwha: A River Reborn, which opened at the University of Washington Burke Museum on November 23rd. The exhibit is based on the book of the same title by Mapes and photographer Steve Ringman, and tells the story of the largest dam removal in U.S. history.  

Hood canal watershed boundaries; image courtesy of the Puget Sound Partnership
11/4/2013

Developing human wellbeing indicators for the Hood Canal watershed

The University of Washington Puget Sound Institute and Stanford University in collaboration with the Hood Canal Coordinating Council report on efforts to select human wellbeing indicators relevant to natural resource management in the Hood Canal watershed.
2013 State of the Sound report cover
11/1/2013

2013 State of the Sound

The 2013 State of the Sound is the Puget Sound Partnership’s third report to the Legislature on progress toward the recovery of Puget Sound by 2020. The document reports on both the status of the Partnership's recovery efforts and the status of a suite of ecosystem indicators.

Photo courtesy University of Washington Center for Conservation Biology; conservationbiology.net
10/16/2013

Potential effects of the interaction between marine mammals and tidal turbines – an engineering and biomechanical analysis

A paper presented at the European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference in Aalborg, Denmark describes the potential effects of a tidal turbine strike on an endangered Southern Resident Killer Whale in Puget Sound (SRKW). A tidal turbine is proposed for deployment in Admiralty Inlet in Island County. 

7/31/2013

Puget Sound Voices: Don Malins interview

The audio files below are excerpts from a May 2013 interview with Donald Malins, former Director of the Environmental Conservation Division of NOAA Fisheries. Research by Malins and his colleagues in the 1970s and mid-1980s revealed high levels of industrial toxics in sediment-dwelling fish in Puget Sound, leading to the creation of Superfund sites in the Duwamish Estuary and Commencement Bay. Read a full profile of Donald Malins. The interview was conducted by Richard Strickland and Randy Shuman in cooperation with the Encyclopedia of Puget Sound as part of the Puget Sound Voices series. Additional assistance was provided by Jake Strickland. 

Don Malins examines a fish during a research trip to the Duwamish estuary. Photo circa 1987. Photographer unknown.
7/30/2013

Toxics research that changed Puget Sound history

In the 1970s and 1980s, research from a division of NOAA's Montlake Lab suddenly and irreversibly changed the way scientists and the public viewed the health of Puget Sound. Their discoveries of industrial toxics in the region's sediment-dwelling fish led to the creation of two Superfund sites, and new approaches to ecosystem management across the Sound. The man at the forefront of this research was Dr. Donald Malins, featured here as part of the Puget Sound Voices series.

6/17/2013

Interacting coastal based ecosystem services— recreation and water quality in Puget Sound

This paper uses water quality data to examine the relationship between environmental condition and recreational use of parks in Puget Sound.

Block seine fishing. Image courtesy of WDFW.
6/14/2013

Report: Economic analysis of the non-treaty commercial and recreational fisheries in Washington State

This report, published in 2008 by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, summarizes the economic importance of Washington fisheries using data from 2006. The report's Executive Summary is reprinted below, followed by summaries of data specific to Puget Sound.

Fishing boat in the San Juans, 1895. Image courtesy of NOAA.
6/13/2013

Report: Fishing communities in Puget Sound

The following descriptions of fishing communities in Puget Sound are taken from the 2007 document NOAA Technical Memorandum: Community Profiles for West Coast and North Pacific Fisheries

Image courtesy of NOAA.
6/11/2013

Major ports in Puget Sound: fact sheet

The following fact sheet represents economic and environmental activities of major ports in the Puget Sound region. This is a living document and may be updated as new information becomes available. 

Benthic invertebrates are indicators of sediment health. Photo by D. Hyrenbach, NOAA.
6/4/2013

Report: Sediment quality in Central Puget Sound

Sediment health in Central Puget Sound has shown a recent steep decline, according to a report by the Washington Department of Ecology. The report compares monitoring data over a ten-year period between 1998/1999 and 2008/2009.

Vern Morgas (second from the left) and friends
5/31/2013

Puget Sound Voices: scuba pioneer

Vern Morgas remembers the early days of scuba diving in Puget Sound.

A view from the San Juan Islands. Photo: Bureau of Land Management
5/6/2013

San Juan Islands National Monument

The San Juan Islands National Monument was established on March 25, 2013 by the Obama administration. 

Juvenile Manila clams. Photo: Julie Barber
5/2/2013

Extended abstract— Poisoning the body to nourish the soul: Prioritising health risks and impacts in a Native American community

This is an extended abstract of Poisoning the body to nourish the soul: Prioritising health risks and impacts in a Native American community by Jamie L. Donatuto, Terre A. Satterfield and Robin Gregory. The full article was published in Health, Risk & Society, Vol. 13, No. 2, April 2011, 103–127. The extended abstract was prepared for the Encyclopedia of Puget Sound by Jamie L. Donatuto. 

3/20/2013

Native American tribes of the Puget Sound watershed

This page includes links to information for Native American tribes with tribal lands found within the boundaries of the Puget Sound watershed.

2/4/2013

Salish Sea tribes in Canada

This page includes links to information for First Nations living along the Salish Sea in Canada. First Nations peoples occupied what is now Canada prior to the arrival of Europeans and Americans, and over 50 cultural groups and unique languages are represented across the country.

Ferry in Puget Sound. Image courtesy of NOAA.
1/2/2013

Carsey Institute studies on communities and coastal restoration in Puget Sound

In an effort to understand how residents of Puget Sound view social and environmental change in their region, researchers at the Carsey Institute at the University of New Hampshire and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration collaborated on a public perceptions survey, visualization models, and stakeholder workshops in 2012. The results of their research are available online, and in the three attached PDF documents.

10/30/2012

Well-being indicators in the Puget Sound Basin

A summary and categorization of types of social indicators and metrics used by government and non-government agencies in the Puget Sound Basin.

State of Our Watersheds Report
10/2/2012

Report: 2012 State of Our Watersheds

The State of Our Watersheds Report is produced by the treaty tribes of western Washington, and seeks to present a comprehensive view of 20 watersheds in the Puget Sound region and the major issues that are impacting habitat.

Map of the Hood Canal Action Area; courtesy Puget Sound Partnership
9/19/2012

PSI review finds minimal evidence for human impacts on Hood Canal hypoxia

An independent review conducted by the Puget Sound Institute (PSI) is featured in findings by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology that there is currently “no compelling evidence” that humans are the cause for recent trends in declines in dissolved oxygen in Hood Canal.

9/13/2012

Upper Skagit Tribe

The Upper Skagit tribe includes descendants from 11 villages in the Upper Skagit and Samish watersheds. Although the tribe signed the treaty of Point Elliott, no reservation was established, and members refused to leave the region. Today, the tribe's population is scattered among different towns, including Sedro-Woolley, Mount Vernon, and Newhalem.

Upper Skagit Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Tulalip Tribes

The Tulalip reservation is located near Marysville, Washington. It was created after the Point Elliott Treaty of 1855, and currently has a population of 2,500 members. The entire tribal population is approximately 4,000 and growing. 

Tulalip Tribes Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Swinomish Indian Tribal Community

The Swinomish Indian Tribal Community is descended from Coast Salish people that lived in and around the Skagit and Samish Rivers. Their reservation, about 15 square miles, is located on Fidalgo Island, between Skagit Bay, Padilla Bay, and the Swinomish channel.

Swinomish Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Suquamish Tribe

The Suquamish Tribe, whose ancestors have lived in the region for approximately 10,000 years, has 950 enrolled members. About half of them live on the Port Madison reservation, established in 1855 by the treaty of Point Elliott.

Suquamish Tribe Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Stillaguamish Tribe

The Stillaguamish Tribe is descended from the Stoluck-wa-mish River Tribe, who signed the treaty of Point Elliott in January 1855. Some tribal members moved to the Tulalip reservation, while others remained along the Stillaguamish River. The headquarters for the tribe are in Arlington, Washington.

Stillaguamish Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Squaxin Island Tribe

The Squaxin Island tribe is made up of several tribes from Squaxin Island and the surrounding inlets. Although no members of the tribe currently live on Squaxin Island year-round, it unites past and future generations and is still an important destination. The tribal headquarters are located in Kamilche.

Squaxin Island Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Skokomish Tribe

The Skokomish Tribe began as the Twana Indians, made up of nine communities living in and around the Hood Canal drainage basin.

Skokomish Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Sauk-Suiattle Tribe

The original homeland of the Sauk-Suiattle tribe covered the entire drainage area of the Sauk, Suiattle, and Cascade rivers. A village of eight traditional cedar longhouses at Sauk Prairie was destroyed by settlers in 1884. From a tribe of 4,000 in 1855, numbers dropped until 1924, when only 18 members remained. Currently, the tribe has around 200 members.

Sauk-Suiattle Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Quinault Indian Nation

The Quinault Indian Nation includes the Quinault and Queets tribes, as well as descendants of five other coastal tribes. The tribe's headquartes are located in Taholah, Washington.

Quinault Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Quileute Tribe

The Quileute live along the Pacific Coast, in La Push, Washington. The tribe's historical territory stretched up and down the coast.

Quileute Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Puyallup Tribe

The Puyallup Tribe lives in one of the first areas in Puget Sound that was settled by Euro-Americans. For years, they were unable to exercise their fishing rights, until the U.S. vs. Washington court decision, which allowed them access to the usual and accustomed areas.

Puyallup Tribe Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Port Gamble S'Klallam Tribe

The Port Gamble S’Klallam reservation covers 1,340 acres. Over half of the nearly 2,000 enrolled tribal members live on the reservation. Port Gamble Bay, the tribe’s ancestral home, has proven to be more resilient than other nearby water bodies, but it still carries a load of toxins from the Pope & Talbot sawmill, which operated on the bank for over 150 years.

Port Gamble S'Klallam Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Nooksack Tribe

The Nooksack are a tribe of about 2,000 members. After signing the Point Elliott Treaty in 1855, they lost ownership of much of their land in exchange for fishing and hunting rights. They were expected to move to the Lummi Reservation, but most refused, and they were eventually granted some homestead claims. Currently, around 2,400 acres remain in trust, administered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. After the 1855 treaty, the tribe remained unrecognized until 1973. The tribe's name translates to "always bracken fern roots".

Nooksack Tribe Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Nisqually Tribe

The Nisqually tribe has over 650 enrolled members. Most live on or near the reservation, which was established by the Medicine Creek Treaty in 1854. According to legend, the Nisqually people migrated from the Great Basin thousands of years ago, crossing the Cascades and settling in what is now Skate Creek. The tribe is one of the largest employers in Thurston County.

Nisqually Tribe Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Muckleshoot Tribe

The Muckleshoot Indian Tribe is named after the prairie where the Muckleshoot reservation was established in 1857. The tribe’s members are descended from the Duwamish and Upper Puyallup people.

Muckleshoot Tribe Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Makah Nation

Makah tribal headquarters are located in Neah Bay, Washington. In the 1800s, the tribe numbered between 2,000 and 4,000, spread between five permanent villages on the Washington Coast. The Makah have a strong whaling tradition and close ties to the ocean.

Makah Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Lummi Indian Tribe

The Lummi tribe is one of the largest in Washington State, with over 5,000 members.

Lummi Tribe Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe

The Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe lives on the north coast of the Olympic Peninsula, west of Port Angeles, in the lower Elwha River valley. The land was proclaimed the Lower Elwha Reservation in 1968, and the current tribal lands include approximately a thousand acres. Currently, the tribe has 985 enrolled members, with 395 living on the reservation.

Lower Elwha Klallam Area of Concern:

9/13/2012

Jamestown S'Klallam Tribe

The Jamestown S’Klallam tribe is one of several communities originating from the S’Klallam tribe (“strong people”), a cultural and linguistic group in the Salish Sea. The S’Klallam signed the treaty of Point No Point in 1855, which entitled them to a payment of $60,000 over 20 years and fishing rights at the “usual and accustomed places.” In 1874, a band of S’Klallams paid $500 for a 210-acre piece of land near Dungeness, which became the Jamestown community.

9/13/2012

Hoh Indian Tribe

The Hoh River (chalak'At'sit, or "the southern river") is central to the history, economy and culture of the tribe. Established in September of 1893, the Hoh Indian Reservation covers 443 acres of land on the west side of the Olympic Peninsula. The tribe shares a language with the Quileute. In 2010, additional land was transferred to the tribe under the Hoh Indian Tribe Safe Homelands Act, in order to allow the tribe to move to land outside the tsunami zone if necessary.

Hoh Tribe Area of Concern:

Coast Salish Canoe Journey 2009 landing in Pillar Point; photo by Carol Reiss, USGS
8/13/2012

Traditional Ecological Knowledge

Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), sometimes called Indigenous Knowledge, refers to cumulative knowledge and experience that indigenous cultures have of their environment. In the last thirty years, there has been growing interest in TEK as a resource for restoration and conservation projects.

5/22/2012

2010 Census Quick Facts for Whatcom County, WA

Learn more about demographics in Whatcom County, Washington.  The U.S. Census Bureau published the following quick facts.

5/22/2012

2010 Census Quick Facts for Thurston County, WA

Learn more about demographics in Thurston County, Washington.  The U.S. Census Bureau published the following quick facts.

5/22/2012

2010 Census Quick Facts for Snohomish County, WA

Learn more about demographics in Snohomish County, Washington.  The U.S. Census Bureau published the following quick facts.

5/22/2012

2010 Census Quick Facts for Skagit County, WA

Learn more about demographics in Skagit County, Washington.  The U.S. Census Bureau published the following quick facts.

5/22/2012

2010 Census Quick Facts for San Juan County, WA

Learn more about demographics in San Juan County, Washington.  The U.S. Census Bureau published the following quick facts.

5/22/2012

2010 Census Quick Facts for Pierce County, WA

Learn more about demographics in Pierce County, Washington.  The U.S. Census Bureau published the following quick facts.

5/22/2012

2010 Census Quick Facts for Mason County, WA

Learn more about demographics in Mason County, Washington.  The U.S. Census Bureau published the following quick facts.

5/22/2012

2010 Census Quick Facts for Lewis County, WA

Learn more about demographics in Lewis County, Washington.  The U.S. Census Bureau published the following quick facts.

5/22/2012

2010 Census Quick Facts for Kitsap County, WA

Learn more about demographics in Kitsap County, Washington.  The U.S. Census Bureau published the following quick facts.

5/22/2012

2010 Census Quick Facts for King County, WA

Learn more about demographics in King County, Washington.  The U.S. Census Bureau published the following quick facts.

5/22/2012

2010 Census Quick Facts for Jefferson County, WA

Learn more about demographics in Jefferson County, Washington.  The U.S. Census Bureau published the following quick facts.

5/22/2012

2010 Census Quick Facts for Island County, WA

Learn more about demographics in Island County, Washington.  The U.S. Census Bureau published the following quick facts.

5/21/2012

2010 Census Quick Facts for Clallam County, WA

Learn more about demographics in Clallam County, Washington. The U.S. Census Bureau published the following quick facts.

Chief Sealth, known to settlers as Chief Seattle. Photo: E.M. Sammis/MOHAI.
5/3/2012

Modern Puget Sound timeline

The Puget Sound region has a long history that has shaped the culture and environment we experience today. View a timeline describing key events in the Puget Sound region dating from Washington statehood to the present.

Camas flower in full bloom
4/25/2012

Relic gardens: camas in the San Juan Islands

A botanist believes Coast Salish tribes once favored small islands in the San Juan archipelago for growing camas, an important food staple. Her studies may also show the vulnerability of these relic gardens to climate change as sea levels rise.

Whale watching boat in Puget Sound.
2/16/2012

Ecosystem services in Puget Sound

Ecosystem services are the “outputs” and experiences of ecosystems that benefit humans, and are generated by the structure and function of natural systems, often in combination with human activities. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, a global effort to catalog and assess ecosystem status and functions, offers a useful classification scheme.